The Sultanate of Oman is situated on the southeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula and is located between Latitudes 16° 40’and 26° 20’North and Longitudes 51° 50’and 59° 40’East.
The coastline extends 1,700 Km from the Strait of Hormuz in the north, to the borders of the Republic of Yemen in the south and overlooks three seas: the Arabian Gulf , Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea .
The Sultanate borders Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the West; the United Arab Emirates in the Northeast, the Republic of Yemen in the South; the Strait of Hormuz in the North and the Arabian Sea in the East.
The Musandam Peninsula forms the country’s northern tip, and is separated from the rest of the Sultanate by United Arab Emirates’ eastern coast and includes the only coast the Sultanate has on the Arabian Gulf .
Musandam is just over 50 Km (30 miles) south of the Islamic Republic of Iran across the Strait of Hormuz .
The total land area is around 309,500 Km 2 and it is the third largest country in the Arabian Peninsula .
Oman possesses a rich diverse topography ranging from rugged mountains and rocky deepwater fjords in the North, to the spectacular dunes of Sharqiyah (Wahiba) Sands and two large salt flats in the centre, to the lush green hills of Dhofar region in the South, with rugged coasts and placid beaches stretching along the 1,700 Km coastline.
The northern coastal strip along the Gulf of Oman is known as the Batinah Coast ; a narrow fertile plain separated from the rest of the country by the Hajar Mountains . The highest peak is Jabal Shams ( Sun Mountain ) at 3,075 m. The southern slopes of the range are notable for their oasis towns where date groves flourish in the dry desert air.
In the south lies the second mountain range in Oman; the Qara Mountains , which attracts the light monsoon rains during the mid-summer months, turning them green with vegetation whose roots help delay the effects of erosion resulting in a soft rolling landscape more akin to central Africa .
As in the north, a narrow fertile coast plain lies between the mountains and the sea at whose centre Salalah lies, surrounded by lush vegetable farms and coconut groves.
The varied geography of the Sultanate resulted in a wide variety of climatic conditions. Although lying in the tropics, th Sultanate is subject to seasonal changes like the more temperate regions of the world.
The hottest months are June through August. The summer monsoon just touches the southern coast of Dhofar during these months bringing regular light rain to Salalah and reducing the average daytime highs to 30° C.
The most pleasant months to visit Oman are mid October through March when daytime temperatures fall into the lower 30s and below.
Rainfall varies but in general remains sparse and irregular. In the south most of the year’s rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon months. In the north the opposite occurs. Here most rain comes from occasional winter storms which descend out of the eastern Mediterranean during the months of January through March, depositing an annual average of 10 cm of rain on the capital area.